History of Supercomputing (1993-08-20)

Greg.Wilson@cs.anu.edu.au (Greg Wilson (EXP 31 dec 93))
Fri, 20 Aug 1993 03:47:59 GMT

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History of Supercomputing (1993-08-20) Greg.Wilson@cs.anu.edu.au) (1993-08-20)
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Newsgroups: comp.parallel,comp.sys.super,comp.arch,comp.compilers
From: Greg.Wilson@cs.anu.edu.au (Greg Wilson (EXP 31 dec 93))
Keywords: parallel, history
Organization: Australian National University
Date: Fri, 20 Aug 1993 03:47:59 GMT

This document is a timeline of major developments in parallel
computing. It will eventually appear as part of a textbook on
parallel programming, but will also be separately published. All
contributions and corrections are welcomed, and should be sent to
gregw@cs.anu.edu.au. (Please note that actual entries are more likely
to be followed up than comments of the form "You should include
something about system X -- I think there was an article about it in
CACM a few years ago, or maybe one of the IEEE journals.")

The persons listed below have contributed or corrected articles; I am
particularly grateful to Michael Wolfe, whose generous early
assistance got this off the ground, and to Eugene Miya, who provided
many useful pointers. I would also like to thank Andy Ben-Dyke and
Graem Ringwood, who are compiling entries on parallel functional and
parallel logic programming respectively for inclusion in the next release.

TA Tamir Azaz tamir@meiko.co.uk
ADBD Andy Ben-Dyke adb@cs.bham.ac.uk
JB John Bennett jbennett@ncube.com
EAB Edward Bertsch eab@msc.edu
BMB Bruce Boghosian bmb@think.com
BRC Brad Carlile bradc@cray.com
WD Bill Dally billd@ai.mit.edu
VDR Vibha Dixit-Radiya radiya-v@cis.ohio-state.edu
JD Jack Dongarra dongarra@cs.utk.edu
JF John Feo feo@diego.llnl.gov
JMF Jim Flemming flemming@vino.enet.dec.com
WH Willi Hasselbring willi@informatik.uni-essen.de
RWH Roger Hockney rwh@pac,soton.ac.uk
RNI Roland Ibbett r.n.ibbett@ed.ac.uk
RJ Rick Johnson rickj@ssd.intel.com
LSK Larry Kaplan lkaplan@ultra.tera.com
AK Alan Karp karp@hplahk.hpl.hp.com
HGK Harwood Kolsky harwood@cse.ucsc.edu
VK Venkata Konda vkonda@ncube.com
HL Hwa Lai hwal@fai.com
CEL Charles E. Leiserson cel@theory.lcs.mit.edu
TL Tom Lovett tdl@sequent.com
BM Barry Margolin barmar@think.com
LFM Larry Meadows lfm@pgroup.com
ENM Eugene Miya eugene@wilbur.nas.nasa.gov
YO Yoshio Oyanagi oyanagi@is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
GP George Paul gp1@watson.ibm.com
SCP Stephen C. Perrenod perrenod@renaissance.cray.com
RR Robert Rau rau@hplabs.hpl.hp.com
JRR James R. Reinders reinders@ssd.intel.com
PR Paul Repacholi zrepachol@cc.curtin.edu.au
ER Erwin Reyzl erwin.reyzl@zfe.siemens.de
MS Matthias Schumann schumann@informatik.tu-muenchen.de
MCS Markus Schwehm schwehm@immd7.informatik.uni-erlangen.de
DHS Dave Shaver shaver@convex.com
RS Roger Shepherd roger@inmos.co.uk
MKS Mark Smotherman mark@cs.clemson.edu
DS Douglas E. Solomon doug@sgi.com
HSS Harold Stone hstone@sunset.ee.cornell.edu
PDT Philip Tannenbaum b47tbaum@sx.iah.nec.com
PGW Paul Whiting pgw@mel.dit.csiro.au
GVW Greg Wilson gvw@epcc.ed.ac.uk
MW Mike Wolfe mwolfe@cse.ogi.edu
HZ Hans Zima zima@icase.edu


IBM introduces the 704. Principal architect was Gene Amdahl; it was
the first commercial machine with floating-point hardware (capable of
approximately 5 kFLOPS). (GP: IBM, 704, Amdahl)


IBM starts 7030 project (known as STRETCH), with the goal of producing
a machine with 100 times the performance of the IBM 704, initiated by
Atomic Energy Commission at Los Alamos. (MW,HGK: IBM, STRETCH)

Atlas project begins at University of Manchester; principal architect
is Tom Kilburn. (RNI: Atlas)


Bull of France announces the Gamma 60 with multiple function units and
fork and join operations in its instruction set; 19 are later built.
(MKS: Bull, Gamma 60)


IBM delivers first STRETCH computer. Only seven are ever built, but
much of the techology re-surfaces in the later IBM 7090 and 7094.


Control Data starts development of CDC 6600. (MW: CDC, Cray, CDC


C. A. Petri describes Petri Nets. (WH: Petri, Petri-Nets)

Atlas computer (joint venture between University of Manchester and
Ferranti Ltd.) becomes operational. First machine to use virtual
memory and pagin; instruction execution is pipelined, and the machine
contains separate fixed and floating-point arithmetic units, capable
of approximately 200 kFLOPS. (RNI: Atlas)


Atomic Energy Commission urges manufacturers to look at "radical"
machine structures. This leads to CDC Star-100, TI ASC, and

Control Data Corporation produces CDC 6600, the world's first
commercial supercomputer. (GVW: CDC, Cray, CDC 6600)

Air Force signs ILLIAC-IV contract with University of Illinois. The
project is led by Daniel Slotnick; primary subcontractors are
Burroughs and Texas Instruments. (MW: ILLIAC-IV)


Multics project begun by GE, MIT, and AT&T Bell Laboratory, to develop
a general-purpose shared-memory multiprocessing timesharing system.
(BM: GE, MIT, Bell Labs, Multics, symmetric multiprocessing)


Bernstein introduces Bernstein's Condition for statement independence,
which is foundation of subsequent work on data dependency analysis.
(GVW: Bernstein, compilation, data dependency)

Flynn publishes paper describing architectural taxonomy. (GVW: Flynn,


Amdahl publishes paper questioning feasibility of parallel processing;
his argument is later called "Amdahl's Law". (GVW: Amdahl)

Karp, Miller and Winograd publish paper describing dependence vectors
and loop transformations. (MW: vectorization, loop transformation)

IBM produces the 360/91 (later model 95) with dynamic instruction
reordering. 20 of these were produced over the next several years;
the line was eventually replaced with the slower Model 85. (MW,HGK:
IBM, IBM 360/91)


Edsger Dijkstra describes semaphores. (GVW: Dijkstra, semaphore)

Duane Adams of Stanford University coins the term "dataflow" while
describing graphical models of computation in his Ph.D thesis. (PGW:
dataflow, Stanford University)

Group formed at Control Data to study computing needs for image
processing; this leads to AFP and Cyberplus designs. (MW: CDC,

IBM 2938 Array Processor delivered to Western Geophysical (who
promptly painted racing stripes on it). First commercial machine to
sustain 10 MFLOPS on 32-bit precision. A programmable digital signal
processor, it proves very popular in the petroleum industry. (HGK,GP:
IBM, IBM 2938, array processor)


Honeywell delivers first Multics system (symmetric multiprocessor with
up to 8 processors). (BM: Honeywell, Multics, symmetric

CDC produces CDC 7600 pipelined supercomputer. (GVW: CDC, Cray, CDC

George Paul, M. Wayne Wilson, and Charles Cree begin work on VECTRAN,
an extension to FORTRAN 66 with array-valued operators, functions, and
I/O facilities. (GP: IBM, FORTRAN, VECTRAN)


Floating Point Systems Inc. founded by former C N Winningstad and
Tektronix employees to manufacture floating-point co-processors for
minicomputers. (GVM,BRC: FPS)

PDP-6/KA10 master/slave (asymmetric) multiprocessor jointly developed
by MIT and DEC. (JMF: DEC, asymmetric multiprocessor)

Development of C.mmp begins at Carnegie-Mellon. (GVW: C.mmp, CMU)


Edsger Dijkstra poses the dining philisophers problem which is often
used to test the expressivity of new parallel languages. (WH:
Dijkstra, dining philisophers)

Intel produces 4004 microprocessor (world's first single-chip CPU).
(GVW: Intel)

CDC delivers hardwired Cyberplus parallel radar image processing
system to Rome Air Development Center, where it produces 250 times the
performance of CDC 6600. (MW: CDC, Cyberplus)

Texas Instruments delivers the Advanced Scientific Computer (also
called Advanced Seismic Computer). Seven of these machines were
developed. An aggressive automatic vectorizing Fortran compiler was
developed for this machine. (MW: TI, ASC)


Seymour Cray leaves Control Data Corporation, founds Cray Research
Inc. (GVW: CDC, CRI)

Quarter-sized (64 PEs) ILLIAC-IV installed at NASA Ames. (GVW:

BBN builds first Pluribus machines as ARPAnet switch nodes. (GVW:
BBN, Pluribus)

Goodyear produces STARAN, a 4X256 1-bit PE array processor using
associative addressing and a FLIP-network. (MCS: Goodyear, Staran)

Burroughs builds PEPE (Parallel Element Processor Ensemble) with 8X36
processing elements and associative adressing. (MCS: Burroughs, PEPE)

Paper studies of massive bit-level parallelism done by Stewart
Reddaway at ICL. These later lead to development of ICL DAP. (GVW:

TOPS-10 monitor for PDP-10 re-written by DEC to allow asymmetric
multiprocessing. (JMF,PR: DEC, asymmetric multiprocessor)


William Callaghan, working for TI on TI ASC compiler, describes GCD
test for data dependence analysis. (MW: vectorization, GCD test)


Tony Hoare describes monitors. (GVW: Hoare, monitors)

Jack Dennis and David Misunas at MIT publish first paper describing a
dataflow computer. (PGW: MIT, dataflow)

Leslie Lamport's paper "Parallel Execution of Do-Loops" appears;
theoretical foundation for all later work on automatic vectorization
and shared-memory parallelization. (HZ: Lamport, vectorization)

IBM 3838 array processor (a general-purpose digital signal processor)
delivered. (HGK: IBM, IBM 3838, array processor)

Work begins on prototype DAP (Distributed Array Processor) at ICL.

Design begins on Burroughs Scientific Processor (BSP). (MW: BSP)

Burton Smith begins designing context-flow Heterogeneous Element
Processor (HEP) for Denelcor. (GVW: Denelcor, HEP)


Edsger Dijkstra describes guarded commands. (WH: Dijkstra, guarded

ILLIAC-IV becomes operational at NASA Ames after concerted check out
effort. (MW: ILLIAC-IV)

Work begins at Carnegie-Mellon University on Cm*, with support from
DEC. (GVW: CMU, Cm*)

Design of iAPX 432 (symmetric multiprocessor) begins at Intel. (GVW:
Intel, iAPX 432)

Cyber 200 project begins at Control Data. (MW: CDC, Cyber)


Parafrase compiler system developed at University of Illinois under
the direction of David Kuck; this is the successor to a program called
the Analyzer. (MW: vectorization, Kuck, Parafrase)

U. Banerjee's thesis formalizaes the concept of data dependence, and
describes and implements the analysis algorithm named after him.
(MW,HZ: vectorization, Banerjee)

First Cray-1 delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory. (MW: CRI,

Borroughs delivers PEPE to BMDATC Advanced Research Center,
Huntsville, Alabama (MCS: Burroughs, PEPE)

Control Data delivers Flexible Processor, a programmable signal
processing unit. (MW: CDC, Flexible Processor)

Floating Point Systems Inc. delivers 38-bit AP-120B array processor
that issues multiple pipelined instructions every cycle. (BRC: FPS,
array processor, LIW)

Floating Point Systems Inc. describes loop wrapping, later called
software pipelining, to program pipelined multiple instruction issue
processors. (BRC: FPS, software pipelining, array processor)


Roger Hockney introduces N(1/2) and R(infinity) as metrics for
pipelined and other architectures. (RWH: N(1/2), R(infinity),
performance metrics)

C.mmp hardware completed at Carnegie-Mellon University (crossbar
connecting minicomputers to memories). (GVW: CMU, C.mmp)

Al Davis of the University of Utah, in collaboration with the
Burroughs Corporation, builds the first operational hardware dataflow
processor called the DDM1 (Data-Driven Machine 1). This is based on
the static model of dataflow token scheduling. (PGW: Davis,
University of Utah, Burroughs Corporation, DDM1, static dataflow)

Massively Parallel Processor project first discussed at NASA for fast
image processing. (MW: Goodyear, MPP)

Defacto standards activity started by the linear algebra community to
define basic vector operations used in linear algebra. The collection
is called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms or BLAS. Later the
name is changed to the Level 1 BLAS. Project to develop a portable
software package used to solve systems of linear equation is started,
this effort is called the LINPACK project. (JD: BLAS, standards,


Fortune and Wyllie publish paper describing the PRAM model. (GVW:
Fortune, Wyllie, PRAM)

Kung and Leiserson published first paper on systolic arrays. (CEL:
systolic arrays)

Leslie Lamport describes algorithm for creating partial order on
distributed events. (GVW: Lamport, virtual time)

Tony Hoare describes CSP. (WH: Hoare, CSP)

John Backus (inventor of Fortran) publishes paper on FP systems,
arguing that dependence on conventional languages has made the
development and use of non-von Neumann architectures uneconomical, and
has deprived computer architects of an intellectual foundation for new
computers. (PGW: Backus, FP, dataflow)

Arvind, Kim Gostelow and Wil Plouffe (at the University of California,
Irvine) describe the Unravelling Interpreter (U-Interpreter), which
exploits even greater concurrency than the static dataflow model.
This idea comes to be referred to as the dynamic dataflow model. The
dataflow language Id (Irvine dataflow) is introduced. (PGW: Arvind,
Gostelow, Plouffe, U-Interpreter, dynamic dataflow, Id)

BBN begins design of distributed-shared memory machine based around
"butterfly" switch, with its roots in work on perfect-shuffle networks
by Stone (1972) and on Omega networks by Lawrie (1975). (GVW, HSS:
BBN, Butterfly)


Parviz Kermani and Leonard Kleinrock describe the virtual cut-through
technique for message routing. (GVW: Kermani, Kleinrock, virtual
cut-through, message routing)

Josh Fisher describes a technique called "trace scheduling", a method
of compiling for wide-word machines. This later becomes the
foundation for Multiflow's VLIW systems. (MW: VLIW, trace scheduling)

ICL DAP delivered to Queen Mary College, London --- world's first
commercial massively parallel computer. (GVW: ICL, DAP)

Inmos set up by British government to develop and produce memory chips
and microprocessors. (GVW: Inmos)

First single-processor prototype of Denelcor HEP operational. (GVW:
Denelcor, HEP)

The first dataflow multiprocessor (with 32 processors) becomes
operational at CERT-ONERA in Toulouse, France. It is based on the
static model and is known as the LAU system after its programming
language (Language en Assignation Unique). (PGW: dataflow,

Texas Instruments begins work on the DDP (Data-Driven Processor),
based on the static model, and on a FORTRAN compiler to run on it.
(PGW: dataflow, TI, DDP)

IBM's John Cocke designs the 801, the first of what are later called
RISC architectures. (HGK: IBM, RISC, IBM 801)

Level 1 BLAS published/released. LINPACK software package complete
and released; the LINPACK Users' Guide finished; the Linpack Users'
Guide contains the first LINPACK Benchmark Report, with 17 machines
ranging from the DEC PDP-10 to the Cray 1 which achieves 4 MFLOPS for
a 100^2 matrix at full precision on a single processor. (JD: BLAS,
standards, Linpack Benchmark, Cray-1)


J. T. Schwartz publishes paper describing and analysing the
ultracomputer model, in which processors are connected in a
shuffle/exchange graph. (HSS: Schwartz, ultracomputer)

Robin Milner, working at Edinburgh, describes the Calculus of
Communicating Systems. (: Milner, CCS)

PFC (Parallel Fortran Compiler) developed at Rice University under the
direction of Ken Kennedy. (MW: PFC, Kennedy, vectorization)

Teradata spun off from Citibank to develop parallel database query
computers. (GVW: Teradata)

Burroughs Scientific Processor project cancelled after one sale but
before delivery. (MW: BSP)

Mitsui Shipbuilding Company installs a 32-processor ring array called
PPA at Hokkaido University, Japan. (YO: PPA)

DEC develops KL10 TOPS-10 based symmetric multiprocessor (up to three
CPUs supported, but a customer built a five-CPU system). (JMF: DEC,
symmetric multiprocessor)


Franco Preparata and Jean Vuillemin describe the cube-connected cycles
topology. (GVW: Preparata, Vuillemin, cube-connected cycles)

Paper by Kuck, Kuhn, Padua, Leasure, and Wolfe on use of dependence
graphs for vectorization. (HZ: vectorization)

Carver Mead gives seminar on massive parallelism at California
Institute of Technology; inspires development of Cosmic Cube hypercube
at Caltech by group led by Charles Seitz (computer science) and
Geoffrey Fox (physics). (GVW: Caltech, hypercube, Seitz, Fox)

Danny Hillis writes first description of the Connection Machine
architecture (appears as memo from Artificial Intelligence Lab at
MIT). (BMB: TMC, Connection Machine)

First BBN Butterfly delivered --- 68000s connected through multistage
network to disjoint memories, giving appearance of shared memory.
(GVW: BBN, Butterfly)

iAPX 432 prototype completed; Intel abandons project. (GVW: Intel,
iAPX 432)

DEC produces VAX 11/782 asymmetric multiprocessor; a small number of
4-processor machines (11/784) are built. (JMF, PR: DEC, VAX,
asymmetric multiprocessor)

Control Data delivers Cyber 205 vector supercomputer. (MW: CDC,

The first dynamic dataflow computer becomes operational at the
University of Manchester. (PGW: Manchester, dataflow)

Floating Point Systems Inc. delivers 64-bit FPS-164 array processor
that issues multiple pipelined instructions every cycle, start of
mini-supercomputer market. (BRC: FPS, FPS-164, array processor, LIW,

Silicon Graphics Inc. is founded in late 1981, by James H. Clark and
others to develop the IRIS, a high-performance graphics workstation.
(DS: Silicon Graphics, IRIS, Clark)


Michael Wolfe's thesis on optimizing compilers for supercomputers
(first detailed, coherent account of program transformations for
vectorization and shared-memory parallelization). (HZ: Wolfe,
restructuring compilers, vectorization)

ILLIAC-IV decommissioned. (GVW: ILLIAC-IV)

Steve Chen's group at Cray Research produces first X/MP machine (2
pipelined processors with shared memory). (GVW: CRI, Cray-X/MP)

First Denelcor HEPs installed in US. (GVW: Denelcor, HEP)

Hitachi introduces S-810/10 and S-810/20 vector supercomputers. (YO:
S-810, Hitachi)

Control Data improves Flexible Processor to make Advanced Flexible
Processor. (MW: CDC, AFP)

{Cosmic Cube hypercube prototype operational at Caltech; first
predecessor of CrOS (Crystalline Operating System) running.} {GVW,
{Caltech, hypercube, MPI}}

Convex founded to pursue mini-supercomputer market. (GVW: Convex)

Alliant (originally named Dataflow) founded. (GVW,MW: Alliant)


DARPA starts Strategic Computing Initiative, which helps fund such
machines as Thinking Machines Connection Machine, BBN Butterfly, WARP
from Carnegie Mellon University and iWarp from Intel Corp. (MW:

Gottlieb and others describe the NYU Ultracomputer, a shared-memory
machine based on a multistage network using message combining. Works
begins on construction of the Ultracomputer at New York University; a
related project, the RP3, is begun at IBM. (AG: message combining,
NYU, Ultracomputer, RP3, IBM)

Full Cosmic Cube hypercube running at Caltech; work begins on Mark II.
Steve Colley and John Palmer (of Intel) sees Caltech machines, and
leaves Intel to found nCUBE. (GVW,VK: Caltech, hypercube, nCUBE)

Fujitsu ships first VP-200 vector supercomputer. (YO: Fujitsu,

NEC introduces SX-1 vector supercomputer. (YO: NEC, SX-1)

Massively Parallel Processor delivered by Goodyear Aerospace to NASA
Goddard. (MW: Goodyear, MPP)

Loosely-coupled VAXclusters supported by DEC's VMS operating system.
(JMF: DEC, symmetric multiprocessor, VAX)

Myrias Research founded as spin-off from University of Alberta to
build shared-memory mini-supercomputers. (GVW: Myrias)

Scientific Computer Systems founded to design and market a
Cray-compatible minisupercomputer. (MW: SCS)

Sheryl Handler and Danny Hillis found Thinking Machines Corporation;
Danny Hillis' Ph.D. thesis becomes the starting point for a
massively-parallel AI supercomputer. (BMB: TMC)

ETA Systems, Inc. spun off from CDC to develop a new generation of
vector supercomputers. (GVW: CDC, ETA)

Encore founded. (GVW: Encore)

Sequent founded. Several of its founders are former members of Intel
iAPX 432 project. (GVW,TL: Sequent, Intel, iAPX 432)

Cray-1 with 1 processor achieves 12.5 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK. (JD:
Linpack Benchmark, Cray-1)

J. R. Allen's Ph.D. thesis at Rice University introduces the concepts
of loop-carried and loop-independent dependencies, and formalizes the
process of vectorization. (HZ: data dependence analysis,

David May publishes first description of Occam, a concurrent
programming language closely associated with the transputer. (RS:

Sisal 1.0 (Streams and Iterations in a Single-Assignment Language)
language definition released by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
(LLNL), Colorado State University, DEC, and University of Manchester.
A derivative of VAL, the language included array operations, streams,
and iterations. (JF: SISAL, functional languages)


Kurt Mehlhorn and Uzi Vishkin describe how various classes of PRAM can
simulate one another. This work forms the basis for Valiant's later
work on random routing and optimality. (GVW: Mehlhorn, Vishkin, PRAM,

Ron Cytron's Ph.D. thesis at the University of Illinois introduces
concept of DOACROSS loops. (HZ: Cytron, DOACROSS, vectorization)

Cydrome founded to build VLIW-style mini-supercomputers with
architectural support for software pipelining of loops. (RR: Cydrome,

Sequent produces first shared-memory Balance multiprocessors, using
NS32016 microprocessors and proprietary DYNIX symmetric operating
system. (GVW,TL: Sequent, Balance)

Mitsui Shipbuilding Company installs a two-dimensional toroidal array
of processors, PAX-64J, at the University of Tsukuba, Japan. (YO:

Cray X/MP family expanded to include 1 and 4 processors. (GVW: CRI,

Convex ships prototype version of C1 mini-supercomputer. (DHS:
Convex, C1)

Unimpressed with available commercial machines, Caltech begins work on
Mark III hypercube. (GVW: Caltech, hypercube)

Intel Scientific Computers set up by Justin Rattner to produce
commercial hypercube machines. (GVW: Intel, hypercube)

Multiflow founded by Fisher and others from Yale to produce very long
instruction word (VLIW) supercomputers. (GVW: Multiflow)

Cray X/MP with 1 processor achieves 21 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK. (JD:
Linpack Benchmark, Cray X/MP)


Dally and Seitz develop model of wormhole routing, invent virtual
channels, and show how to perform deadlock-free routing using virtual
channels. (WD: Dally, Seitz, wormhole routing, virtual channels)

Leiserson publishes first paper describing fat-tree network. (CEL:
fat trees, message routing)

Pfister and Norton analyse effect of hot spots in multistage networks,
and describe how message combining can ameliorate their effect. (GVW:
Pfister, Norton, hot spots, message combining)

TMC demonstrates first CM-1 Connection Machine to DARPA. (BMB: TMC,

Denelcor closes doors. (GVW: Denelcor)

IBM introduces 3090 vector processor. (HGK: IBM, IBM 3090)

Intel produces first iPSC/1 hypercube (80286 processors connected
through Ethernet controllers). (GVW: Intel, iPSC/1)

Inmos produces first (integer) T414 transputer. Members of
implementation group leave to found Meiko, which demonstrates its
first transputer-based Computing Surface at SIGGRAPH that year.
ESPRIT Supernode project begun to produce floating-point transputer.
(GVW: Inmos, transputer, Supernode, Meiko)

Alliant delivers first FX/8 vector multiprocessor machines using a
custom implementation of an extended Motorola 68020 instruction set.
An auto-parallelizing Fortran compiler is shipped with the machine.
(SCP: Alliant, FX/8)

Fujitsu introduces VP-400 vector supercomputer. (YO: Fujitsu, VP-400)

First NEC SX-2 vector supercomputer shipped (6.0 ns clock, capable of
producing 8 floating point results per clock cycle, up to 256 MByte
memory). (PDT: NEC, SX-2)

nCUBE produces first nCUBE/10 hypercube using custom processors.
(GVW: nCUBE, nCUBE/10)

Teradata ships first DBC/1012 parallel database query engine (Intel
8086 processors connected by proprietary tree network). (GVW:
Teradata, DBC/1012)

Ring-connected multiprocessor delivered by Control Data, called the
Cyberplus. (MW: CDC, Cyberplus)

Floating Point Systems Inc. delivers FPS-264, an ECL version of 64-bit
FPS-164 array processor that issues multiple pipelined instructions
every cycle. (BRC: FPS, FPS-264, array processor, mini-supercomputer)

Convex ships first production version of single-processor C1
mini-supercomputer. (MW,DHS: Convex, C1)

Cray Research produces Cray-2, with four background processors, a
single foreground processor, and a 4.1 nsec clock cycle. (GVW: CRI,

IBM begins RP3 project, intending to build a scalable shared-memory
multiprocessor using a message-combining switch. (HGK: IBM, IBM RP3)

Stellar Computer, Inc., founded by Bill Poduska, former Apollo
Computer founder, to build single-user high-performance graphics
workstations. (MW: Stellar)

Ardent Computer founded by Allen Michels, former founder of Convergent
Technologies, and Gorden Bell, formerly of DEC, to build machines in
competition with Stellar. (MW: Ardent)

Supertek Computers, Inc. is founded by Mike Fung, former Hewlett
Packard RISC project manager. (GVW: Supertek)

W. K. Giloi's design chosen as basis for German Suprenum project.
(MS: Suprenum, Giloi)

NEC SX-2 with 1 processor achieves 46 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK. (JD:
Linpack Benchmark, NEC SX-2)

Sisal 1.2 language definition released; language definition does not
change for another seven years. (JF: SISAL, functional languages)

David Gelernter publishes description of Linda language. Key elements
of this later re-appear as the Linda parallel programming system.
(GVW: Gelernter, Linda)

Robert Halstead introudces futures in a paper describing the
implementation of Multilisp. (GVW: Multilisp, Halstead, futures)

David Jefferson describes how virtual time and time warping can be
used as a basis for speculative distributed simulations. (GVW:
Jefferson, timewarp, simulation)


Dally shows that low-dimensional k-ary n-cubes are more wire-efficient
than hypercubes for typical values of network bisection, message
length, and module pinout. Dally demonstrates the torus routing chip,
the first low-dimensional wormhole routing component. (WD: Dally,
k-ary n-cubes, hypercubes, wormhole routing)

Kai Li describes system for emulated shared virtual memory. (GVW: Li,
shared virtual memory)

Encore ships first bus-based Multimax computer (NS32032 processors
coupled with Weitek floating-point accelerators). (GVW: Encore,

Thinking Machines Corp. ships first Connection Machine CM-1 (up to
65536 single-bit processors connected in hypercube). (GVW: TMC, CM-1)

Scientific Computer Systems delivers first SCS-40, a Cray-compatible
minisupercomputer. (GVW: SCS)

GE installs a prototype 10 processor Warp system at CMU (programmable
bit-slice VLIW systolic array). (JRR: CMU, GE, Warp)

Cray X/MP with 4 processors achieves 713 MFLOPS (against a peak of
840) on 1000^2 LINPACK. (JD: Linpack Benchmark, Cray X/MP)

Floating Point Systems introduces T-series hypercube (Weitek
floating-point units coupled to transputers), and ships 128-processor
system to Los Alamos. (BRC: FPS, T-series, transputer)

Henry Burkhardt, former Data General and Encore founder, forms
Kendall Square Research Corporation (KSR) to build custom
multiprocessor. (GVW: KSR)

BBN forms Advanced Computers Inc. subsidiary (BBN ACI) to develop and
market Butterfly machines. (GVW: BBN)

Active Memory Technology spun off from ICL to develop DAP products.

Level 2 BLAS activity started. (JD: Level 2 BLAS)

CrOS III, Cubix (file-system handler) and Plotix (graphics handler)
running on Caltech hypercubes. (GVW: hypercube, MPI)

Symmetric multiprocessing supported by VMS. (JMF: DEC, symmetric
multiprocessor, VAX)

Alan Karp offers $100 prize to first person to demonstrate speedup of
200 or more on general purpose parallel processor. Brenner,
Gustafson, and Montry begin work to win it, and later win the Gordon
Bell Prize. (AK: Karp Prize)


J. van Leuwen and R. B. Tan describe interval routing, a compact way
of encoding distributed routing information for many topologies. This
is later used in the Inmos T9000 transputer. (ER: interval routing)

Charles Koelbel, Piyush Mehrotra and John Van Rosendale describe
Blaze, the first language to propose a notation for explicit data
distribution. (HZ: Blaze, data distribution)

ETA produces first air- and liquid nitrogen-cooled versions of ETA-10
multiprocessor supercomputer. (GVW: ETA)

Myrias produces prototype (68000-based) SPS-1. (GVW: Myrias, SPS-1)

Caltech Mark III hypercube completed (68020 with wormhole routing).
(GVW: Caltech, hypercube)

Cydrome delivers first Cydra 5 system in September. System is a
multi-processor, with a single VLIW-style numeric processor for
numeric applications, plus multiple scalar processors for I/O and
other general-purpose processing. Numeric processor has a 256-bit
instruction word capable of 7 operations per cycle. (RR: Cydrome,

TMC introduces CM-2 Connection Machine (64k single-bit processors
connected in hypercube, plus 2048 Weitek floating point units). (GVW:
TMC, CM-2)

Sequent produces 80386-based Symmetry bus-based multiprocessor.
(GVW,TL: Sequent, Symmetry)

Multiflow delivers first Trace/200 VLIW machines (256 to 1024 bits per
instruction). (GVW: Multiflow, Trace/200)

GE installs the first 10-processor production Warp system at CMU.
(JRR: CMU, GE, Warp)

Seitz, working at Ametek, builds the Ametek-2010, the first parallel
computer using a 2-D mesh interconnect with wormhole routing. (WD:
Seitz, Ametek, Ametek-2010, wormhole routing)

Steve Chen leaves Cray Research to found Supercomputer Systems, Inc.
SSI is later funded by IBM to build large-scale parallel
supercomputer. (MW: CRI, SSI)

Gordon Bell Prize for parallel performance first awarded; recipients
are Brenner, Gustafson, and Montry, for a speedup of 400-600 on
variety of applications running on a 1024-node nCUBE; and Chen,
DeBenedictis, Fox, Li, and Walker, for speedups of 39-458 on various
hypercubes. (GVW: Gordon Bell Prize)

ETA 10 with 1 processor achieves 52 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK; NEC SX-2
with 1 processor achieves 885 MFLOPS (against a peak of 1300) on
1000^2 LINPACK. (JD: Linpack Benchmark, ETA 10, NEC SX-2)

SC (SISAL Compiler) released by LLNL and Colorado State University.
First functional language, native-code compiler and runtime system for
shared-memory multiprocessor systems. (JF: SISAL, functional

ParaSoft spun off from hypercube group at Caltech to produce
commercial version of CrOS-like MPI. (GVW: Express, ParaSoft,
hypercube, MPI)


John Gustafson and others demonstrate that Amdahl's Law can be broken
by scaling up problem size. (GVW: scalability, Gustafson)

Hans Zima, Heinz Bast, and Hans Michael Gerndt describe SUPERB, the
first automatic parallelization system for distributed-memory systems.
Ken Kennedy and David Callahan describe many of the same ideas in a
paper published later that year. (GVW: parallelization)

Rosing and Schnabel describe DINO, an extension to C for describing
processor structures and data distributions for distributed-memory
machines. (HZ: data distribution)

Inmos produces first T800 floating-point transputer. Parsys and
Telmat formed to exploit results of ESPRIT Supernode project; Meiko,
Parsys, and Telmat begin marketing T800-based machines. (GVW: Inmos,
transputer, Parsys, Telmet, Meiko)

Silicon Graphics delivers the Power Series graphics workstations
(bus-based multiprocessor workstations and servers with up to 8 MIPS
R2000 RISC microprocessors). (DS: Silicon Graphics, Power Series)

CRI produces first Y/MP multiprocessor vector supercomputer. (GVW:
CRI, Cray-Y/MP)

AMT delivers first re-engineered DAP (1024 single-bit processors
connected in torus). (GVW: AMT, DAP)

Convex introduces second-generation C2 mini-supercomputers. (DHS:
Convex} {C2)

Intel produces iPSC/2 hypercube (80386/7 chip-set with wormhole
routing, plus concurrent I/O facilities). (GVW: Intel, iPSC/2)

Ardent and Stellar begin delivering single-user graphics engineering
workstations. (GVW: Stellar, Ardent)

Hitachi ships first S-820 vector supercomputer. (YO: Hitachi, S-820)

Work begins at Indian Centre for Development of Advanced Computing
(CDAC) on transputer-based parallel machine. (VDR: PARAM, transputer)

Definition of Occam2 concurrent programming language published. (RS:

The 128 processing-element SIGMA-1 dataflow machine of Japan's
Electro-Technical Laboratory (ETL) delivers over 100 MFLOPS. (PGW:
dataflow, SIGMA-1, ETL)

Floating Point Systems Inc. changes name to FPS Computing, buys
Celerity Computing assets, and produces Model 500 (Celerity 6000)
mini-supercomputer with multiple scalar and vector processors. (BRC:
FPS, Celerity)

MasPar Computer Corp. founded by former DEC executive Jeff Kalb to
develop bit-serial massively-parallel machines. (MW: DEC, MasPar)

Cydrome closes doors in December due to financial problems. (RR:

Tera Computer Co. founded by Burton Smith and James Rottsolk to
develop and market a new multi-threaded parallel computer, similar to
the Denelcor HEP. (LSK: Tera)

Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) working group formed to develop
standard for interconnection network providing 1 GByte per second per
processor and cache coherence using many unidirectional point-to-point
links. (DBG: SCI)

Cray Y/MP with 1 processor achieves 74 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK; the
same machine with 8 processors achieves 2.1 GFLOPS (against a peak of
2.6) on 1000^2 LINPACK. (JD: Linpack Benchmark, Cray Y/MP)

Gordon Bell Prize awarded to Vu, Simon, Ashcraft, Grimes, and Peyton,
whose static structures program achieved 1 GFLOPS on an 8-processor
Cray Y/MP. (GVW: Gordon Bell Prize)

Level 2 BLAS published/released; Level 3 BLAS activity started; LAPACK
project started. LAPACK effort to produce software for linear algebra
problems on shared memory parallel computers and high-performance
workstations. (JD: Level 2 BLAS, Level 3 BLAS, LAPACK)

ParaSoft releases first commercial version of Express MPI; first
version of DIME (Distributed Irregular Mesh Environment) up and
running at Caltech. (GVW: ParaSoft, Express, MPI, Caltech, DIME)


Valiant argues that random routing and latency hiding can allow
physically-realizable machines to emulate PRAMs in optimal time.
(GVW: Valiant, random routing, PRAM, emulation)

Ramanujam and Sadayappan describe an approach for automatic
parallelization, which includes generating data distributions for
loops under certain conditions. (HZ: data distribution,

Scientific Computer Systems stops selling its SCS-40 Cray-compatible
computer system. SCS continues to sell high-speed token ring network.

BBN ACI delivers first 88000-based TC2000 distributed shared-memory
multiprocessor. (GVW: BBN, TC2000)

Myrias sell first 68020-based SPS-2 shared-memory multiprocessor.
(GVW: Myrias, SPS-2)

Meiko begin using SPARC and Intel i860 processors to supplement T800s
in their Computing Surface machines; begins integrating products with
SunOS enviornment. (GVW: Meiko, Computing Surface)

Evans and Sutherland announce the ES-1 parallel computer. Two systems
are delivered, to the University of Colorado and CalTech. The
division is later shut down during the Supercomputing '89 conference,
even while they had a booth in the convention center in Reno. (MW:

Multiflow produces second-generation Trace/300 machines. (MW:
Multiflow, Trace/300)

Fujitsu begins production of single-processor VP2000 vector
supercomputers. (GVW: Fujitsu, VP2000)

Supertek Computers, Inc., delivers its S-1 Cray-compatible
minisupercomputer; eventually 10 of these are sold. (MW: Supertek)

Control Data shuts down ETA Systems in April; National Science
Foundation subsequently shuts down the John von Neumann Supercomputer
Center at Princeton, which was operating an ETA-10. (MW: CDC, ETA)

Stellar and Ardent announce they will merge, forming Stardent
Computers. (MW: Stellar, Ardent, Stardent)

Seymour Cray leaves Cray Research to found Cray Computer Corporation.

Arvind's group at MIT receives first hardware prototype of MONSOON
tagged-token architecture from Motorola. (PGW: Monsoon, dataflow,
Motorola, MIT, Arvind)

Prototype of SUPERB automatic parallelization system finished.
Developed as part of the German SUPRENUM project, this translated
Fortran 77 programs annotated with data distribution specifications
into code containing explicit message-passing. (HZ: SUPERB,

Gordon Bell Prize for absolute performance awarded to a team from
Mobil and Thinking Machines Corporation, who achieved 6 GFLOPS on a
CM-2 Connection Machine; prize in price/performance category awarded
to Emeagwali, who achieved 400 MFLOPS per million dollars on the same
platform. (GVW: Gordon Bell Prize)

Cray Y/MP with 8 processors achieves 275 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK, and
2.1 GFLOPS (against a peak of 2.6) on 1000^2 LINPACK. (JD: Linpack
Benchmark, Cray Y/MP)

OSC (Optimizing SISAL Compiler) released by LLNL and CSU. The
compiler optimizes the copy and memory management; SISAL programs
achieve Fortran speeds on conventional shared-memory multiprocessors.
(JF: SISAL, functional languages)

nCUBE produces second-generation nCUBE/2 hypercubes, again using
custom processors. (MW: nCUBE, nCUBE/2)

The Portland Group (PGI) founded to develop software pipelining
compilers for the Intel i860 and other machines. (LFM: Portland


Saltz, Crowley, Mirchandany, and Berryman describe method for run-time
scheduling of loops with irregular data accesses. (HZ: scheduling)

Charles Koelbel's Ph.D. thesis (Purdue) describes Kali; introduces
processor arrays, block and cyclic distributions, and user-defined
data distribution functions. Many of these ideas migrate into Vienna
Fortran and HPF. (HZ: Kali, data distribution)

Multiflow closes doors in April after several deals with other
companies fall through. (MW: Multiflow)

First MasPar MP-1 delivered (up to 16k 4-bit processors connected in
8-way mesh). (GVW: MasPar, MP-1)

NEC ships SX-3, the first Japanese parallel vector supercomputer (up
to 4 processors, each with up to 4 pipeline sets, a 2.9 ns clock, and
up to 4 Gbyte of memory). (PDT: NEC, SX-3)

Fujitus ships first VP-2600 vector supercomputer. (YO: Fujitsu,

Fujitsu begins producing AP1000, containing 64 to 512 SPARC processors
connected by a point-to-point toroidal network, a global broadcast
tree, and a synchronization bus. (HL: Fujitsu, AP1000)

Alliant delivers first FX/2800 i860-based multiprocessors. (GVW:
Alliant, FX/2800)

In a project led by MITI, Fujitsu, Hitachi, and NEC build a testbed
parallel vector supercomputer containing four Fujitsu VP2600s, NEC's
shared memory, and Hitachi software. (OY: Fujitsu, NEC, Hitachi,

Intel produces iPSC/860 hypercubes, using i860 microprocessor and
wormhole-routed connections. (RJ: Intel, iPSC/860)

Intel demonstrates iWarp system to CMU and DARPA (descendent of Warp,
with custom microprocessor replacing wire-wrapped boards). (JRR:
Intel, iWarp)

Wavetracer builds the DTC (Data Transport Computer) consisting of one
to four boards of 16X16X16 1-bit PEs, virtual array size, first
three-dimensional array processor. (MCS: Wavetracer, DTC)

Cray Research, Inc., purchases Supertek Computers Inc., makers of the
S-1, a minisupercomputer compatible with the Cray X-MP. (MW: Cray,

MIT J-Machine demonstrates message-driven network interface that
reduces overhead of message handling. (WD: Dally, J-Machine, Actors

National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC) places order
with Cray Computer Corporation for Cray-3 supercomputer. The order
includes a unique 8-processor Cray-2 computer system that is installed
in April. (MW: CCC, Cray-3, NERSC)

University of Tsukuba completes 432 processor machine QCDPAX in
collaboration with Anritsu Corporation. (YO: QCDPAX, Anritsu)

The two ETA-10 systems at the closed John von Neumann Supercomputer
Center are destroyed with sledge hammers, in order to render them
useless, after no buyers are found. (MW: ETA)

Gordon Bell Prize in price/performance category awarded to Geist,
Stocks, Ginatempo, and Shelton, who achieved 800 MFLOPS per million
dollars in a high-temperature superconductivity program on a 128-node
Intel iPSC/860; prize in compiler parallelization category awarded to
Sabot, Tennies, and Vasilevsky, who achieved 1.5 GFLOPS on a CM-2
Connection Machine with Fortran 90 code derived from Fortran 77.
(GVW: Gordon Bell Prize)

Fujitsu VP2600 with 1 processor achieves 2.9 GFLOPS (against a peak of
5 GFLOPS) on 1000^2 LINPACK. (JD: Linpack Benchmark, Fujitsu VP2600)

Level 3 BLAS published/released. The Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM)
project started. PVM is designed to develop a software layer needed
to put together a heterogeneous collection of computers hooked
together by a network to be used as a single large parallel computer.
Proof of concept software produced (PVM 1.0 not publicly released).
(JD: {Level 3 BLAS, PVM)

Applied Parallel Resarch (APR) spun off from Pacific-Sierra Research
(PSR) to develop FORGE and MIMDizer parallelization tools, and upgrade
them to handle Fortran 90. (BMB: APR, FORGE, MIMDizer, PSR)

TMC and AMT sign co-operative agreement to standardize languages.
(1990: data-parallel languages, TMC, AMT)


Abhiram Ranade describes how message combining, butterfly networks,
and a complicated routing algorithm can emulate PRAMs in near-optimal
time. (GVW: Ranade, butterfly, PRAM, emulation)

Jos\'{e} Duato describes a theory of deadlock-free adaptive routing
which works even in the presence of cycles within the channel
dependency graph. (ER: adaptive routing)

Jingke Li and Marina Chen describe CRYSTAL, a systematic approach for
specifying communication and optimizing an automatic mapping from
access patterns to communication structures. (HZ: data distribution,

Myrias closes doors. (GVW: Myrias)

BBN shuts down its Advanced Computers, Inc. (ACI) subsidiary, though
it continues to sell TC-2000 computers. (MW: BBN)

Stardent, formed by merger in 1989, announces it will sell off its
business and shut its doors. The graphics computer line (the former
Ardent architecture) is eventually taken over by Kubota Pacific
Computer Corp. (MW: Stardent)

CRI produces first Y/MP C90. (GVW: CRI, Cray-Y/MP C90)

Convex ships first C3 supercomputer based on gallium arsenide (GaAs).
(DHS: Convex, C3)

Kendall Square Research starts to deliver 32-processor KSR-1 computer
systems. (MW: KSR)

Thinking Machines Corporation produces CM-200 Connection Machine, an
upgraded CM-2. MIMD CM-5 announced. (BMB: TMC, CM-200)

64-processor nCUBE 2 with 48 I/O processors and 205 disks achieves
1073 transactions per second running Oracle Parallel Server --- twice
the speed of the fastest contemporary mainframe, at one twentieth the
cost per transaction. (JB,VK: nCUBE, Oracle Parallel Server)

256-node PARAM supercomputer containing 256 T800 transputers connected
in four 64-node clusters by 96X96 crossbars running at India's CDAC.
Alternative machine configuration containing i860s also developed;
machines later sold to Germany, Russia, and Canada. (VDR: PARAM,

Geoffrey Fox, Ken Kennedy, and others describe Fortran D, a language
extensions for distributed-memory systems. This is later one of the
parents of HPF. (HZ: Fortran D, HPF)

Cray Y/MP C90 with 16 processors achieves 403 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK;
a Fujitsu VP2600 with 1 processor achieves 4 GFLOPS (against a peak of
5 GFLOPS) on 1000^2 LINPACK. (JD: Linpack Benchmark, Cray Y/MP C90,
Fujitsu VP2600)

Intel introduces the iWarp system, featuring the iWarp LIW processor
with on-chip integrated communication, long lived
connections, systolic and low-latency communication, and 512 kbyte
to 2 Mbyte per processor. (JRR: Intel, iWarp)

Intel delivers Touchstone Delta prototype for its Paragon
multicomputer (two-dimensional mesh of i860 microprocessors with
wormhole routing) to the Concurrent Supercomputing Consortium at
Caltech; commercial deliveries of Paragon begin late in the year.
(RJ: Intel, Paragon)

FPS Computing delivers MCP-784, an 84-processor shared memory
i860-based system, uses data-vectorization into caches. (BRC: FPS,

In December, the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC)
at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory cancels contract to buy
Cray-3 from Cray Computer Corp. (MW: CCC, Cray-3)

Germany's Suprenum project produces first bug-free hardware. Machine
contains nodes based on MC68020 with Weitek floating point
accelerator; clusters contain 16 nodes communicating over a bus, and
clusters are connected through bi-directional links. No further
hardware is built, as the technology used was no longer competitive.
(MS: Suprenum)

Bill Pugh, at the University of Maryland, describes the Omega test for
data dependence analysis of loops. (MW: vectorization, Omega test)

OSC 12.0, released by LLNL and CSU. First functional language
compiler for multiprocessor vector supercomputers. SISAL programs
achieve Fortran speeds on the Cray-X/MP and Cray-Y/MP supercomputers.
(JF: SISAL, functional languages)

David Bailey publishes complaint about abuse of benchmarks,
particularly by parallel computer vendors. (GVW: Bailey,

Meiko produces commercial implementation of ORACLE Parallel Server
RDBMS for multi-SPARC Computing Surface systems. (TA: Meiko,
Computing Surface, Oracle)


Garth Gibson's thesis on redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID)
published. (GVW: Gibson, RAID)

Benkner, Brezany, Chapman, Mehrotra, Schwald, and Zima describe Vienna
Fortran and Vienna Fortran 90, dialects of Fortran containing explicit
data distribution directives. (HZ: Vienna Fortran)

Alliant declares bankruptcy. (LFM: Alliant)

AMT bankrupt; revived as AMT Cambridge Ltd. (MW: AMT)

FPS Computing bankrupt; selected assets bought by CRI, and Cray
Research Superservers (CRS) subsidiary formed. FPS Model 500 renamed
Cray S-MP; FPS MCP renamed Cray APP. (BRC: FPS, CRI)

Kendall Square Research announces KSR-1 after testing a system with
128 processors and a second level ring interconnect. (MW: KSR)

MasPar Computer starts delivering its second generation machine, the
MP-2. (MW: MasPar)

Thinking Machines Corporation produces first CM-5, containing up to
1024 Sparc microprocessors connected in a fat tree topology, each with
up to 4 vector units manufactured by Texas Instruments. A RAID system
for the CM-5 is also announced. (BMB: TMC, CM-5)

nCUBE introduces the nCUBE 2S family of systems based on a custom VLSI
processr. (VK,JB: nCUBE, nCUBE 2S)

Meiko deliver first CS-2 Computing Surface to Southampton University.
Machine is a fat-tree of SPARC processors, each of which is coupled to
a SPARC-like network interface chip and a Fujitsu \muVP vector
processor. (TA: Meiko, CS-2 Computing Surface)

Ultra III Ultracomputer prototype begins operation at New York
University; first example of asynchronous message combining hardware.
(AG: message combining, NYU, Ultracomputer)

The High Performance Fortran (HPF) forum is formed to define
data-parallel extensions to Fortran. (LFM,HZ: HPF)

Gordon Bell Prize for absolute performance awarded to Warren and
Salmon, who achieved 5 GFLOPS on the Intel Touchstone Delta in a
gravitational interaction tree code; prize for speedup awarded to
Jones and Plassmann, who also achieved 5 GFLOPS on the same platform.
Prize for price/performance awarded to Nakanishi, Rego, and Sunderam,
whose Eclipse system achieved 1 GIPS per million dollars on a widely
distributed network of workstations. (GVW: Gordon Bell Prizes)

Cray Y/MP C90 with 16 processors achieves 479 MFLOPS on 100^2 LINPACK;
an NEC SX-3/44 with 4 processors achieves 13.4 GFLOPS (against a peak
of 22.0) on 1000^2 LINPACK, and 20.0 GFLOPS on a 6144^2 problem. (JD:
Linpack Benchmark, Cray Y/MP C90, NEC SX-3)

LAPACK software released/users guide published. ScaLAPACK Project
started, designed to provide linear algebra software on highly
parallel systems. Message Passing Interface (MPI) Forum started,
standardizing effort for message passing systems. (JD: LAPACK,

Chandy and Taylor describe PCN, a parallel programming system similar
to Strand88, based on dataflow and logic programming. (GVW: PCN,
Chandy, Taylor)


IBM delivers first Powerparallel system based on RISC RS/6000
processor. (HGK: IBM, RS/6000)

Silicon Graphics ships Challenge series of bus-based multiprocessor
graphics workstations and servers, containing up to 36 MIPS R4400 RISC
microprocessors. (DS: Silicon Graphics, Challenge)

IBM stops funding of Supercomputer Systems Inc.; company shuts down.

Cray Computer Corp. Cray-3 placed at National Center for Atmospheric
Research. (EAB: CCC, Cray-3)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) announces intention to
purchase CS-2 Computing Surface from Meiko, the first major purchase
by a U.S. national laboratory from a vendor with roots outside the
U.S. (GVW: Meiko, LLNL)

Fujitsu installs one-of-a-kind 140-processor Numerical Wind Tunnel
(NWT) machine at Japan's National Aerospace Laboratory. Each
processor is a vector supercomputer with 256 Mbyte memory and a peak
performance of 1.6 GFLOPS; processors are connected by crossbar
network. This machine is predecessor of Fujitsu's recently-announced
VPP-500 product. (YO,HL: Fujitsu, VPP500)

NEC produces Cenju-3, containing up to 256 VR4400SC (MIPS R4000
runalike) processors connected by an Omega network. (PDT: NEC,

GF-11 system (the name stands for 11 GFLOPS) purpose-built at IBM for
quantum chromodynamic calculations finishes computation of nucleon
masses. (HGK: IBM, GF-11)

512-node J-Machines (message-driven multicomputers) operational at MIT
and Caltech. (WD: J-Machine, MIT, Caltech, Actors model)

Version 1.0 of the HPF language specific is released. (LFM: HPF)

An NEC SX-3/44 with 4 processors achieves 15.1 GFLOPS (against a peak
of 25.0) on 1000^2 LINPACK; a Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5
achieves 59.7 GFLOPS with 1024 processors on a 52224^2 problem. (JD:
Linpack Benchmark, NEC SX-3, CM-5)

ScaLAPACK Prototypes released, runs on Intel's Paragon, Thinking
Machines' CM-5, and PVM. PVM 3.0 publicly available. (JD: ScaLAPACK,

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